mesopotamian religion

kudurruGods / Goddesses / Deities

An / AnuAššur (Assur / Ashur) – DaganEnki / EaEnlilGula / Ninisinagod listsInana / Ištar(Ishtar) – Iškur / AdadIštaranMardukMartu / AmurruNabu – Nammu – Nanna / Suen / Sin – Nergal / ErraNinurta – the Seven GodsUtu / Šamaš (Shamash) –

Demons, Powers and Spirits

Lamaštu – lion men / demons – Pazuzu


Abzu – underworld

Cult and Ritual

bucket and cone / cone-smearingkudurrumagicnames (theophoric)New Year festivalsacred marriageziggurat


arrowchaplet (beads)crescent (moon)horned capsolar discwinged disc



Select Bibliography – General

(image) a kudurru of Melishihu, now in the Musée du Louvre, Paris: taken from Babylonia to Susa. Kassite period (1202-1188 BC). Grey limestone, height 0.65 m, width 0.30 m.

The Kassite kings of Babylon made generous gifts to their vassals. Record of these was kept on boundary posts, or kudurru, of lands that had been gifted, as well as on great standing stones kept in the temples. These donation lists were placed under the protection of the greatest possible number of gods, usually represented in their symbolic form and arranged according to the hierarchy of the pantheon. In this case, however, the uppermost symbols of those of the 3 heavenly gods: Sin (moon), Shamash (sun) and Ishtar (Venus), in order of their position in the heavens, rather than their importance. They were surpassed by the supreme triad: Anu (sky), Enlil (air) symbolized by their horned crowns and Ea (fresh water from the abyss), symbolised by a sceptre carried by a goat-fish. Below are found the emblems of other gods: that of Marduk, patron-god of Babylon, is identifiable as a pointed hoe placed on a stand and the serpent-dragon which guards the underworld. The same dragon carries the scribe’s stylus, the emblem of Nabu, Marduk’s son. (larger image).

Acknowledgements: Peter Westh, Piotr Steinkeller

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